Review of Regional Development Planning Based on the Human Rights Principles
The current development paradigm is still dominated by the neoclassical economic perspective which sees economic development as a mechanical and simplistic process, without the need to look at aspects of respect, protection, and fulfillment of human rights, although, human rights is the first state responsibility of government. As a result, human rights are not the focus of development policy-making. Human rights and development have a mutually reinforcing relationship that will direct the efforts towards a higher quality of development.On this basis, this study shines a spotlight and examines the management of regional development planning with a human rights basis. To get an idea of the reality, researchers use three areas as a sample, namely: Batang (Central Java), Trenggalek (East Java), and Tanjungpinang (Riau Islands). Existing practices are examined with a human rights-based approach, namely: the formulation process, main content, implementation mechanisms, and protection and restoration. Furthermore, a descriptive qualitative approach is selected to describe the process, understand the nonconformities as well as identify the planning process and the implementation of the development plan. For that, primary data collection is done through interview techniques, focused discussions, and field observation. While for secondary data collection through a literature study. The study shows that the fulfillment of the right to healthcare, education, and food has become priorities in regional development planning. A more transparent and accountable planning approach also opens opportunities to make human right-based development planning as the mainstream. The prerequisites driving factors lie in the dynamics of regional regulation and the commitment of the regional heads with the vision and mission outlined in the RPJMD, including a commitment to maintain a transparent, accountable and clean bureaucracy. In conclusion, the transparent planning approach in the RPJMD needs to be balanced by using human rights standards to improve the quality of human development in the region.
Bappeda Kabupaten Trenggalek. (2016). RPJMD Kabupaten Trenggalek 2016-2021. Bappeda Kabupaten Trenggalek.
Bappeda Kota Tanjungpinang. (2013). RPJMD Kota Tanjungpinang 2013-2018. Bappeda Kota Tanjungpinang.
Eide, A. (1996). Human Rights Requirements to Social and Economic Development. Food Policy, 21(1), 23–39. http://doi.org/10.1016/0306-9192(95)00057-7
Firmanto, D. (2016, May 12). Ahok Akui Podomoro Ikut Andil dalam Penertiban Kalijodo - Metro Tempo.co. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from https://metro.tempo.co/read/770428/ahok-akui-podomoro-ikut-andil-dalam-penertiban-kalijodo
Flynn, J. (2003). Habermas on Human Rights: Law, Morality, and Intercultural Dialogue. Social Theory and Practice, 29(3), 431–457. Retrieved from https://philpapers.org/rec/FLYHOH-3
Gauri, V., & Gloppen, S. (2012). Human Rights-Based Approaches to Development: Concepts, Evidence, and Policy. Polity, 44(4), 485–503. http://doi.org/10.1057/pol.2012.12
Hasyim, D. (2008). Perencanaan Pembangunan Berwawasan HAM Menuju Pembangunan Berpusat pada Rakyat. Unisia Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial, 31(68). Retrieved from http://journal.uii.ac.id/index.php/Unisia/article/view/145
Kusumastuti, D. (2016, May 12). Ombudsman Selidiki Potensi Maladministrasi dalam Penggusuran - Nasional Tempo.co. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from https://nasional.tempo.co/read/770329/ombudsman-selidiki-potensi-maladministrasi-dalam-penggusuran
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 23 of 2014 on Regional Government, Pub. L. No. 23 (2014). Indonesia.
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 25 of 2004 on National Development Planning System, Pub. L. No. 25 (2004). Indonesia.
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 32 of 2004 on Regional Government, Pub. L. No. 32 (2004). Indonesia.
Ljungman, C. M. (2005). A Rights-Based Approach to Development. In B. Mikkelsen (Ed.), Methods for Development Work and Research: A New Guide for Practitioners (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications Pvt. Ltd.
McInerney-Lankford, S., & Sano, H.-O. (2010). Human Rights Indicators in Development: An Introduction. World Bank Studies. The World Bank. http://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8604-0
O’Manique, J. (1992). Human Rights and Development. Human Rights Quarterly, 14(1), 78–103. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/762553
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2006). Frequently Asked Questions on a Human Rights-Based Approach to Development Cooperation. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
OHCHR | Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. (1993). Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/Vienna.aspx
Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 54 of 2010 on the Implementation of Government Regulation Number 8 of 2008 on Stages, Procedures for Formulating, Controlling, and Evaluating the Implementation of Regional Development Plans, Pub. L. No. 54 (2010). Indonesia.
Rukmana, D. (2015). The Change and Transformation of Indonesian Spatial Planning after Suharto’s New Order Regime: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. International Planning Studies, 20(4), 350–370. http://doi.org/10.1080/13563475.2015.1008723
United Nations. (1986). Declaration on the Right to Development. A/RES/41/128. United Nations. Retrieved from www.un.org/documents/ga/res/41/a41r128.htm
United Nations. (1995). Report of the International Conference on Populaiton and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994. New York: United Nations.
United Nations. (1996). Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 4-15 September 1995). A/CONF.177/20/Rev.1. New York: United Nations.
United Nations. (2012). Report of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012). A/CONF.216/16. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/CONF.216/16&Lang=E
Uvin, P. (2007). From the Right to Development to the Rights-Based Approach: How “Human Rights” Entered Development. Development in Practice, 17(4/5), 597–606. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25548258
Vandenhole, W., & Gready, P. (2014). Failures and Successes of Human Rights-Based Approaches to Development: Towards a Change Perspective. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 32(4), 291–311. http://doi.org/10.1080/18918131.2015.957458
World Summit for Social Development. (1995). Report of the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 6-12 March 1995). A/CONF.166/9. New York. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf166/aconf166-9.htm
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
JURNAL BINA PRAJA: Research and Learning in goverment licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License